Virginia Circuit Court Judges recused selves from case, one of recused Judges asked another Judge to hear case (at variance of VA code). Substitue Judge heard case and issued orders, some before his jurisdiction was questioned and some after his juridiction was questioned on the record. No statement was made on jurisdiction, but it was ignored like an elephant in the courtroom.
Does 'questioned' mean objected to in the form of a motion by a pro se litigant or attorney or objected to on the record?
Do you mean in personam jurisdiction or subject matter jurisdiction?
I am going to assume you mean Personal (in personam) Jurisdiction. PJ is a reference to the court's authority over the individual. The court's power over the individual is based on defendant's physical presence in Virginia, being served process in Virginia, or on the happening of some element of the cause of action in Virginia.
As a general rule, Virginia courts can exercise personal jurisdiction over a party residing in Virginia, or transacting substantial business in Virginia, or over a party who caused a tort or injury in Virginia. Individuals must appear in court to contest personal jurisdiction--failing to to that FIRST, waives the right to contest it latter.
For example, If a party answered the bill of particulars and showed up for trial, without first making a special appearance to challenge personal jurisdiction, the right to challenge the jurisdiction is lost. It's possible in the brief scenario you described the attorney challenged jurisdiction, after it was too late, and the judge ignored the challenge in an effort to not embarrass the attorney/pro se litigant (I've seen it happen before—I’ve also seen the judge go the other way and NAIL the objecting party—the affect ends up the same).
See the Code of Virginia at § 8.01-277.1. ‘Objections to personal jurisdiction or defective process; what constitutes waiver’.
"A. Except as provided in § 8.01-277, a person waives any objection to personal jurisdiction or defective process if he engages in conduct related to adjudicating the merits of the case, including, but not limited to:
1. Filing a demurrer, plea in bar, answer, counterclaim, cross-claim, or third-party claim;
2. Conducting discovery, except as provided in subsection B;
3. Seeking a ruling on the merits of the case; or
4. Actively participating in proceedings related to determining the merits of the case.
B. A person does not waive any objection to personal jurisdiction or defective process if he engages in conduct unrelated to adjudicating the merits of the case, including, but not limited to:
1. Requesting or agreeing to an extension of time;
2. Agreeing to a scheduling order;
3. Conducting discovery authorized by the court related to adjudicating the objection;
4. Observing or attending proceedings in the case;
5. Filing a motion to transfer venue pursuant to § 8.01-264 when such motion is filed contemporaneously with the objection; or
6. Removing the case to federal court."
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