There is way too much going on here to be able to give you a confident answer. In many states, if you accept the benefits from the estate, you do not retain the right to later contest the distribution. You need to check with a probate lawyer and determine what your rights are in the state where your mother resided at the time of her death.
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The executor of an estate has to make an accounting of all the assets they find of the decedent and what they do with the money. As a beneficiary you are entitled to see those documents, and in fact you should be able to view them at the probate court clerk's office where the estate was handled.
It seems unlikely to me that this distribution to you is completely out of the blue. If you were a beneficiary under the Will, you would be listed as a party on the court case and would have received notices of the hearings and decisions where the paperwork you speak of was presented to and reviewed by the court. Likewise, if you received a distribution from the estate, the executor would have to account for that distribution to the court.
Put more simply, your lump sum should have come to you a check from an account titled ESTATE OF MOM. If it was, you should be able to get the documents you seek at the probate court. If, on the other hand, you were given cash or a check from your brother's personal account, something may be fishy and you should hire an attorney to look into the matter further.
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It sounds like your brother got his name added on accounts. It does not sound like probate was ever opened. You should petition to probate the will and seek appointment of someone other than your brother (the successor if one). If probate hasnt been filed and your brother does not have good cause for not filing he will be deemed to have waived his right to serve.
You need to seek out a probate attorney.
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