Answered Although it is unusual for a police officer to pull somebody over and not ask for their car registration and proof of insurance, courts do not require them to do so. You should consider getting a lawyer to help prepare a defense for the ticket, as speeding violations can drastically increase your insurance costs. A traffic ticket lawyer may be able to help you find procedural defects to get you out of the ticket.
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Answered I agree with the previous answers, but would like to add that an officer who did not ask for these items MAY not have extensive experience with traffic stops. An experienced traffic attorney may be able to spot technicalities on the ticket and officer's affidavit to dismiss.
Answered You are required to produce this information if asked, but there is no law mandating the officer to ask. It may be some agencies' policy to do so every time, but that doesn't really get you very far in a speeding ticket case. If you look presentable and drive a nice car it is much less likely that the officer will ask for these things. If you're 16 and your car is held together with duct tape the officer may ask for these items and permission to search the car (which you should NEVER consent to). There are many procedural defenses to traffic citations and you are right to be looking for things the officer did wrong. A good traffic ticket lawyer has expereince spotting the issues that matter to the court and may be to find some viable defenses.