The police should have read you your Miranda rights if you were in custody. That does not require that you be in cuffs or at the station. It does require a set of circumstances that would convince a reasonable person that they were not free to leave. That is an issue that could be explored by an attorney on a motion to suppress your statement in the event you are cited. Being at the picnic table with your buddies tends to make the situation less "police dominated." However, whether you were in custody depends on all the circumstances at the time.
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The law pretends that people are free to disobey police questioning and walk away. The issue is whether you were in custody at the time of the questioning. That is for a judge. A person cannot give false information to the police, but unless they are driving a vehicle that has been stopped for a ticket, there is no requirement to provide any information to the police.
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You were in custody - no reasonable person would have felt free to walk away. The cops "needed" your information because they "needed" to find someone to charge with a crime. You should contact a criminal defense attorney, who can work to reduce the damage to your future. Money well spent. Some sort of reduction sounds reasonable.
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It sounds like you will get a citation for underage drinking. This is considered a criminal matter, and is accompanied by a driver license suspension. You should consult a lawyer before doing anything. I'm located in Chester County, and I'm familiar with criminal law and license suspensions. Feel free to call my office for a consultation: 610-280-7078.