My employer called the Emergency Room where my 5 year old daughter was seen by a physician and asked for information regarding her doctors excuse from school (my employer thought I altered the document and was trying to obtain proof it was altered).. Upon my termination for "Misrepresentation" I found out some things I'm uncomfortable with. According to the evidence packet my employer provided me there are emails between my manager and a charge nurse of the hospital. First of all the nurse is communicating with my manager using his personal email address.The first email came from my manager asking the nurse to verify the document. The second email was from the nurse stating that he reviewed the medical charts and thinks the dates are questionable but not for sure it has been altered.
First, you have to understand, there is no private right of action under HIPAA, so you will never have a HIPAA case, only the government can pursue the case. The government office that this responsible for this is the Office of Civil Rights in the Department of Health and Human Services. The site you can find more information at is: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/index.html
As a result, you will be unable to pursue any damages directly from the violation.
That being said, it does appear as if the hospital might have violated your daughter's privacy rights. (Not your employer because employers are not covered entities under the law). What you should do is complain to the hospital's Privacy Officer. You can learn who this is by finding their "Notice of Privacy Practices", either on their website or by writing and asking for a copy.
Hospitals view privacy violations very seriously, and they will follow up, but the likelihood or any recovery by you doesn't really exist.
All that being stated, you might want to speak to an attorney licensed in your state to make certain that state privacy laws do not exist.