It depends on whether the law can be applied retroactively. Usually that is not the case, so its unlikely the prosecutor will file your case, they are to swamped to go back and deal with old cases. If you find the legislative, bill look to see it it is applied reto-active or prospective.
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Senate Bill 264 amends the Texas Controlled Substance Act by making it a felony to possess, manufacture, or sell 25I-NBOMe (25I) and adding 25I to Penalty Group 2.
SB 264 is out of House Committee, but has not been voted on by the House (or, obviously, signed into law by the governor). It is unlikely that the amendment, if passed, will apply retroactively. You can research the bill and track its progress on the Texas Legislature Online website.
Keep in mind that although a particular designer drug, by itself, might not be a controlled substance (yet), it might be mixed with another substance that is controlled.
You did not ask this question to invite a lecture, and I suspect you are well aware of the dangers of ingesting 25I-NBOMe.
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The Constitutions of the United States and the State of Texas contain a provision against ex post facto laws. (U.S. Const. Art. 1 Sec. 9 and Texas Const. Art. 1 Sec. 16) which criminalize conduct which occurred before the enactment of the law. Furthermore, under the principles of due process, it is unconstitutional to declare and prosecute someone for an act that was not criminal when it occurred. (Due process of law is another protection of which notice of what is declared as criminal conduct is a part.) For instance, we have speed limit signs on our roadways, and that lets people know that exceeding that speed limit is illegal. So if you possessed something that was legal when you possessed it, and it was confiscated by law enforcement and then the possession of the substance becomes illegal, you have not committed an offense. However, this may be one of those times where you are forced to prove that your conduct was legal at the time as you work this out through the judicial system.
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If I possess an apple today, and a law passes tomorrow that makes apple possession illegal, then they cannot go back and charge me because when I possessed the apple it was legal. There are very limited circumstances in which laws can be made retroactive without violating ex post facto protections...and this is not one of them.
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No, if the substance was not illegal at the time you were alleged to have possessed it, you cannot be prosecuted. However, beware that prosecutions under an analogue theory are becoming increasingly common. An analogue is a substance which is structurally, substantially similar to a particular controlled substance, and has similar or greater psychoactive effect than a particular controlled substance.