The answer is probably yes but I would need more facts to give a more thoughtful answer. Who is depriving you for your free speech rights? Please provide some additional facts.
Usually yes since likely claim against a governmental agency. But your facts are not clear how what who when etc. good luck.
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Assuming that the complaint is against a governmental entity, then the answer would be yes.
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No, a Federal Civil Rights action under USC 1983 does not have any such pre-requisite. If a State government has violated your constitutional rights, you can immediately file suit in federal court.