Your question is confusing, but I believe that he had the right to raise any defenses to the eviction in court and did not raise those defenses to the eviction when he should have. If you have any doubts about your liability, consult a lawyer.
The above answer is correct.
If you find that he did not actually divorce you, then you can initiate proceedings here if you having been living in New York for two (2) or more years. Yes, he can be served in that other state and still be required to appear in New York.
The levy was put on because the creditor received a judgment. You are supposed to be given notice of the court action filed, but there is a chance that you received a default judgment because the court papers were served on the wrong address.
In other words, yes, there could be a judgment against you without you haven been in court, but you need to get that judgment to determine what court the judgment was obtained. Then you have the chance to fight it.
Yes, you can file responses to motions pro se (without an attorney), but your attorney cannot merely quit in the middle of an action without court permission (or your consent to change the attorney).
Your question is somewhat confusing, as why would an attorney who have papers prepared at all if they did quit?
Your best bet is to inform the court of the situation and ask for an adjournment of the motion return date so you can find alternate counsel. Suffolk is usually generous with...
You may always attempt to appeal anything, but your chances of succeeding are extremely low.
While you might have a case against your attorney (though the chance of this is slim), anything signed in court when you are represented is incredibly difficult to change without some form of duress.
Damages, damages, damages.
On this information alone, I do not believe that you have that much of a plausible action.
What damage occurred other than the smell?
IF your apartment burned, you could certainly have an action for whatever was lost, but if the landlord takes action to correct the problem, then you have not really had any damages other than the inconvenience of having to notify him of the defective oven.
If you were to claim emotional distress, you would have a hard time...
You are definitely going to need to relay more facts here, especially considering the fact that you have not mentioned whether you have any paperwork regarding the terms of ownership, the manner in which it was held, and your father's withdrawal from the business.
Also don't forget to determine if there is a separation agreement that was sign between them. One of the usual terms states that the parties waive claims to any estate proceeds even if there is no final divorce judgmnet filed.