Your insurance company should provide a defense. Cooperate with them. I don't see how an additional lawsuit against you or the circumstances could work to your favor. Your father may be liable under a 'negligent entrustment' theory. More likely than not this is what the other party will claim. best of luck.
Yes, depending on your coverage. Generally, you will have to pay any deductible, until your insurance can collect against the negligent driver. However, it is often much better to go through the negligent party's insurance. I would recommend consulting with a personal injury attorney to assist you with your claim.
I am not really sure what your question is. Generally an advanced directive (as you set forth above) is directions to a health care provider to allow someone else to make medical decisions for you when you are unable to do so. In this case, you would be incapacitated, and therefore would not be able to enforce anything. The surrogate decision maker could ask the court for an injunction; however, if the hospital has already acted, you would have to consider how the action would be undone......
There is no magic formula that guides how much to demand for settlement for personal injuries. The demand will be determined by the value of your past medical care, your future medical care, wage loss (if any), the insured's policy limits, and a variety of other factors. I agree you should consult with an attorney to handle your claim, and do not delay. Complex personal injury matters usually take time to properly handle. Best of luck.
You can file a lawsuit, but the real question is whether you would be successful. I would recommend having your case carefully reviewed by a civil litigation/ personal injury attorney. You will have to show that someone was negligent (whether in manufacturing, repair, etc), and that because of the failure you were harmed.
Basically, a plea bargain is the equivalent of a contract between the accused and the prosecution. In exchange for a guilty/no contest plea, (this avoiding the need for a costly trial), the prosecution agrees to do something (drop certain charges, reduced sentence, lesser penalty, etc.). A plea bargain is within the discretion of the prosecution to offer, and on occasion may be rejected by the judge.