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Justin C. Lowenthal

Justin Lowenthal’s Legal Guides

14 total


  • Enforceability of Electronic Signatures: the "E-Sign" Act

    The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act ("E-Sign") (15 USC 7001-7031) grants parties the ability to contract electronically, defining an "electronic signature" broadly as "an electronic sound, symbol or process, attached to or logically associated with a con...

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  • Trade Secrets Protection for California Businesses: Things to Know (So Others Don't)

    Under California law a "trade secret" is defined as "information, including a formula, pattern, compilation, program, device, method, technique, or process that: (1) derives independent economic value, actual or potential, from not being generally known to the public or to other ...

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  • A Limited Liability Company's Use of a Fictitious Business Name

    I am often asked whether filing the Articles of Organization to register a limited liability company doing business in the state is sufficient to do business under that company name, or whether a fictitious business name statement must also be filed. The answer is yes, the initi...

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  • Warnings Regarding Cash Distributions from California Limited Liability Companies

    Do you own or operate a California limited liability company? Take care when making cash distributions from the company! Undercapitalization is commonly found in alter-ego cases, which allow creditors and claimants to "pierce the company veil". Making improper cash distributions...

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