Generally speaking, if all applications are properly filed, 3 months to get a work permit from USCIS. Social security number is issued by the Social Security Administration and you cannot apply until after you have your employment authorization. Adjustment of status interview can take another month or three depending on your local USCIS office. Total time is 3-6 months. Good luck.
At a minimum, he has to remain outside the US ten years. Whether he can legally live in the US after that depends on the reason he got deported. Consult with an experienced immigration attorney to have his case properly evaluated. Good luck.
If you are eligible to apply for legal residency again, it will be more efficient to process your case through your daughter once she turns 21. However, since you were already a legal permanent resident, the issue will be if you qualify to apply for a 212(h) waiver. Consult with an experienced immigration attorney. Good luck.
Visa bulletin changes are based on a variety of factors including demand for visas. Sometimes we see big jumps followed by a retrogression. Keep checking the bulletin to see when you priority date becomes current. Good luck.
Adance parole is for someone that is in the United States. Generally, if you are petitioning someone outside the US, form I-131 is not submitted. I suggest you speak with an experienced immigration attorney before moving forward. Good luck.