I am guessing you need her SSN for the purpose of claiming child and dependent care credit. If you are unable to obtain her SSN and still want to claim the credit, you will have to mail in your return with a statement explaining the situation attached. Please also remember, that depending on how much you have paid her throughout the year, she may be considered a household employee and rules governing such employment may apply.
Yes, If you worked as an independent contractor you would have to file Schedules C & SE. However, if it was just one time occurrence or a miscellaneous payment, you could put that income on the "other income" line 21 on your 1040 Form.
You should consult with an experienced family law attorney regarding the alimony issue. Material changes in circumstances like age and unemployment could be significant enough to modify the spousal support order upon party's motion. Although various other factors would be taken into consideration before the decision is made, the new spouse's income is usually not one of them.
Take the court documents showing the name change to the Social Security Office. In addition, you will need documents showing your identity and US citizenship. Passport, ID, Drivers license, Birth certificate are all acceptable. You will fill out a new application for Social Security Card due to name change. Once your application is processed, you can proceed to DMV and change it there. You will probably will have to wait for 7-10 days for the changes of SSN record to go into effect.
Taxes on gift transfers are paid by the person giving the gift. However, since your wife's parents live in another country, they would not be subject to US jurisdiction. Thus, no US taxes on the gift transfer.
Since you are married you have only two filing statuses available: either married filing joint or married filing separate. It would be most advantageous for you to file a married filing joint return, because that way you could claim his personal exemption and would be entitled to a larger standard deduction. However, he would need to obtain either SSN or ITIN and a declaration stating the election to be treated as a resident for tax purposes would have to be attached to the return. Otherwise,...
You can go to college even without legal status, however most state universities will charge you out - of state tuition, which is significantly higher than that for state residents. There are couple exceptions to this rule, for example CA and NY where if you would be eligible for state tuition if you attended and graduated public high school. Scholarships and financial aid might be available through private sources, i.e. private scholarships, individual bank loans, school grants, etc.