The UCC applies to contracts of the sale of good between two parties in a commercial context, generally where at least one of the party is a merchant. Both parties do not need to be a merchant for the UCC apply. Note that the UCC does not apply to service, real estate or employment contracts. Thus, additional facts to those given would be needed to assess whether the UCC would apply in any particular scenario.
In order to address the African component of your question, you are going need to consult with an attorney in Africa. I don't think Avvo covers this jurisdiction. Otherwise, to answer your question, I advise speaking with an experienced international tax professional, as they will be best situated to advise on the tax implications of your two scenarios above.
Best of luck to you in your endeavor.
I agree with my colleagues. You do not need to submit the Operating Agreement to the California Secretary of State. However, do remember that you need to file a Statement of Information (LLC-12) with the Secretary of State within the first 90 days of entity formation and biennially thereafter.
I agree with my colleague. First you should have a local real estate attorney review the lease and facts with you. If she is in violation of the terms of the rental agreement, then your attorney should be able to guide you in undertaking the necessary action, which may be an eviction.
If you haven't yet formed a company and issued membership interests to each of the 8 people, then yes, all 8 people can sign the same document as the disclosing party. However, note that many potential investors will push back or negotiate the NDA, as the document may make it difficult to seek out investment opportunities in the future, particularly if the subject opportunity is defined in very broad terms.
With the above in mind, wise to coordinate with an attorney on drafting and...
There are two issues that need to be separated here: the tax/IRS issues and the legal formation/structuring. With respect to the IRS, generally speaking, if you are a 100% sole member/manager of an LLC, and you elect not to be treated as a corporation, then the IRS will treat the LLC as a disregarded entity, meaning that you will be taxed as a sole proprietor. The LLC will not be taxed separately. I think this is what you are referring to in your question when you say "not accepted by the...
I agree with my colleague. Once the visa stamp expires in your passport, even after applying for an extension within the US with the USCIS, you will still need to attend an interview at a consulate or embassy to have a new visa stamped into your passport to permit you to enter the US. If you travel frequently, renewing outside of the US definitely makes more sense, as the extension within the US only extends your existing I-94 stay.