Did they deny your case using the word "fraudulent" or was it denied solely for lack of sufficient evidence. If it was denied for fraud, it will be very difficult to overcome. You have no basis to adjust status at the present time unless you and your United States Citizen girlfriend get married and she files a new I-130 petition on your behalf. Based on your immigration history, you must consult with an experienced immigration attorney who will analyze the details before proceeding.
Your son can sponsor you / husband as an "immediate relatives" provided he's over 21 years old and meets the income requirements for sponsorship. The process is approximately 4 - 6 months if you are already present in the USA. Notably, to sponsor a step-parent, there must have been an adoption lawful under the law of the country where it occurred before the child’s 18th birthday. If he sponsors you both while your outside the United States, it would take nine months to one year.
You should apply for green card renewal. However, based on her charge for drug trafficking, she would require an immigration/criminal attorney to assist her with the process of securing a waiver. Replacement card will not be issued without having biometrics which will disclose her criminal conviction from the 90s.
Litigation in Immigration Court is very complex and as such, legal advice should be sought beyond online message boards. Please have an in person or skype consult with an Immigration Attorney. More factual details are required in order to answer your questions.
As stated earlier, if your father became naturalized prior to you turning 18, you may apply for a Certificate of Naturalization. However, you will need your father's cooperation for the application process.
What is your current immigration status? Did you want to post on the immigration law portal or did you intend to post on the criminal law portal? More information is required in order to answer your question(s)
Immigration counsel will only be helpful once you have established "credible fear" to CBP and have been allowed into the country. An immigration attorney will be invaluable when you prepare and submit your asylum application to USCIS after having entered.
Your current L1 visa authorizes employment with a specific employer. If you were to be an active partner in the LLC, you would have to file for a change of status from the L1 to an E-2 Nonimmigrant Investor Visa. More facts are needed to determine whether the COS would be successful. I strongly encourage you to have an in-person and thorough consult with an experienced immigration attorney.