Sometimes crimes that don't seem severe actually are very severe for immigration purposes. As a Nevada attorney, I'm not aware of any crimes where your boyfriend would be in prison for 4+ years that would not be an "aggravated felony" for immigration purposes which would require his deportation upon completion of his sentence. This is a very complex field and an attorney would need to know exactly what the conviction was for as well as the sentence to be able to clearly identify his prospects....
Bonafide marriage? probably yes without leaving the country. It is taking around 3-4 months to get your green card. You may get a work permit before that. Talk to a good immigration lawyer for details.
The initial application is called an I-130. It requires his signature. Later you would need to furnish an affidavit of support containing a lot of your husbands financial information, and also signed by him. While technically you may still be married to him, I am doubtful you could succeed in getting permanent residence without seriously misrepresenting your situation or his participation.
My colleague Ms. Tunitsky is right. The final regulations have not been published yet. However my understanding is that to qualify for the new stateside processing you cannot have already paid the visa bill. Otherwise you will proceed under the current system. You should wait until. The regs are final and see an experienced immigration attorney for a consultation
Impossible to say without more details. In general, the issue is did you abandon your residency or not. The answer depends on a multitude of factors. Best to consult with a qualified local lawyer, or I'd you are outside the country, arrange for a telephonic consultation. Best of luck!
I am assuming that for purposes of this question that you are female, because if you weren't the Defense of Marriage Act would prevent this application from going forward. The DUI is not a problem, but the drug charges could be unless it was less than 30 grams of marijuana, in which case a 212(h) waiver may be needed. . Before he takes a plea on the drug charge, make sure that his criminal attorney discusses any pleas with an immigration attorney.
Hard to say what ICE will do. I could see them saying that he is not bond eligible as he is a danger to society, then you would have to request a bond hearing before an immigration judge. They won't set up parallel deportation proceedings in California, but they may transfer his case from Las Vegas to California is he's not bonded out before that. I think you need to consult with an attorney and go over all the facts of the case in detail before you do anything. There could be facts that...