Harris county keeps the cases confidential for 30 days. You would not be able to find it online. The attorney sent you the documents without the case number, because when you efile it, the case number does not issue for several days. It does not sound like the attorney has done anything wrong. Perhaps they promised you documents faster than you are going to receive them, but you cannot go to court until 60 days have passed based on the prove up statute.
You should call the bank and advise them that all the money in the account is social security. Also let the credit know as well. As you are in this situation, I would advise a consumer lawyer as you may have damages against the creditor if you demand a release a certain way. Also, you may want to consider bankruptcy as a option to discharge this debt.