When you are in the process of a Chapter 13 bankruptcy you need to have your major economic actions approved by the Court / Trustee. This does not mean that you are constrained from taking logical actions.
I agree with Mr. Wood. In addition to contract there are at least two other reasons a Minnesota Court may have personal jurisdiction over you. One is called In rem Jurisdiction, that is, if you own property in Minnesota. Another is circumstantial. That is, if, for instance, you are in a car accident in Minnesota. You should find a Minnesota attorney to help you.
This may not be an answer hinging on the law, but one thing you may think of doing is, on a daily or every other day basis, go to the bank that the check maker wrote the check from. Try to cash the check there. You just may get there just after he gets paid and before he takes the money out.