It would be best for you to consult with an immigration attorney. When you file on the basis of marriage to a US Citizen, the N-400 application specifically states that you must submit the tax returns. If you filed as "married filing separately," USCIS might ask you why you filed that way, rather than jointly. If you filed as "single" or as "head of household," that could cause more serious problems. Best to consult with an attorney.
There is no new law. It appears that you are referring to the fact that the F2A visa category, at this time, is "current" through September 2013. Although we are not sure, it appears that beginning in October 2013, the F2A category will go back to a waiting period before a beneficiary is eligible to apply for permanent resident status. I advise you to consult with an immigration attorney about the particular facts of your situation, to plan for the best options available.
It's not clear at this time whether he is being detained by state officials for the DWI, or by immigration officials for his immigration-related situation. At any rate, it appears that your dad needs legal assistance with BOTH the DWI situation, AND with his immigration situation. As my colleague mentioned, your dad might be eligible to request a bond to be released from immigration detention. You should consult with an immigration attorney for help with the situation.
Did you receive your employment authorization card? If you want to change the name on that card, you would need to file a request with USCIS. To change your name on your Social Security Card, go to a Social Security office with your marriage certificate and ask for a name change. Social Security might tell you that you need to change your name on your employment authorization card.
At the interview, USCIS will most likely ask questions regarding your marriage, how you met, when you met, etc. Depending on how the USCIS official feels about the validity of your marriage, the official could keep the questions rather simple, or on the other hand, could ask many questions over a period of hours, perhaps separating you and your spouse, asking the same questions separate, and seeing how your answers match up.
The different level of education between the husband and wife is...
This person should definitely consult with an experienced immigration attorney as soon as possible. A felony conviction is a very serious matter and usually results in significant negative consequences for immigration. The fact that the person is a minor might, or might not, have an effect on the consequences. This person really should consult with an immigration attorney experienced with criminal issues.
TRIP and FOIA serve different purposes. TRIP is to attempt to "correct" the record, and/or obtain a Redress Number, which potentially can streamline your entries to the US, especially if you had a problematic encounter with CBP in the past. FOIA is a way to obtain information that CBP (or any other government agency) has. It can be a lengthy and frustrating process to work through either of these programs, and it can be difficult to obtain the results and the information that you want. Best...