It's not clear at this time whether he is being detained by state officials for the DWI, or by immigration officials for his immigration-related situation. At any rate, it appears that your dad needs legal assistance with BOTH the DWI situation, AND with his immigration situation. As my colleague mentioned, your dad might be eligible to request a bond to be released from immigration detention. You should consult with an immigration attorney for help with the situation.
Did you receive your employment authorization card? If you want to change the name on that card, you would need to file a request with USCIS. To change your name on your Social Security Card, go to a Social Security office with your marriage certificate and ask for a name change. Social Security might tell you that you need to change your name on your employment authorization card.
At the interview, USCIS will most likely ask questions regarding your marriage, how you met, when you met, etc. Depending on how the USCIS official feels about the validity of your marriage, the official could keep the questions rather simple, or on the other hand, could ask many questions over a period of hours, perhaps separating you and your spouse, asking the same questions separate, and seeing how your answers match up.
The different level of education between the husband and wife is...
This person should definitely consult with an experienced immigration attorney as soon as possible. A felony conviction is a very serious matter and usually results in significant negative consequences for immigration. The fact that the person is a minor might, or might not, have an effect on the consequences. This person really should consult with an immigration attorney experienced with criminal issues.
Your choices regarding education vs. work should not have any effect on your naturalization application. Regarding taxes, you generally need to file taxes if the IRS requires you to do so. A licensed tax preparer or licensed accountant should be able to provide you with the assistance you need regarding taxes.