No. If you travel outside the US while your application for permanent residence is pending, and if you have not been granted advance parole, then your application will likely be denied as abandoned because of your departure from the US. Please consult with an immigration attorney for more details.
Based on your information, it appears that your parents are already in the process of removal by ICE. Your own application for DACA will not have an effect on your parents' immigration situation. In other words, your application for DACA will not hurt your parents, but it won't help your parents either. Best of luck to you.
Based on your information, it appears that you were in the United States from approximately 1975 to 1983. What was your immigration status during that time? And, where were you born? Do you have any relatives in the United States? If so, what is their immigration status? What education, employment history, and job skills do you have? These are just a few of the questions that you would need to consult with an immigration attorney about possibilities, if any, for you to obtain permission...
Based on the information you provided, it appears that you comply with the continuous residence requirement. USCIS may well ask questions about your employment in Canada. Was your assignment considered temporary? Did your immediate relatives remain in the United States? You should definitely consult with an immigration attorney, who would review all of the facts.
You made a mistake by filing an I-485 based on your second marriage. You should have amended your I-751 to indicate that you entered your first marriage in good faith, but it ended in divorce. It appears that, instead, you requested to withdraw your I-751. I strongly suggest that you consult with an immigration attorney immediately, to try to fix the errors, to avoid future potential errors, and to have the best chance of success. Best of luck.
The answer to your question will probably depend, at least partly, on the date that you entered the United States. If you entered the United States before January 1, 2010, then you might be eligible under Obama's Executive Action. If you entered after that date, then you might not be eligible. We need to wait for USCIS to provide more information and application procedures in the coming months.