Even arrests or convictions for relatively minor offenses can have serious immigration consequences. You should speak with an immigration attorney experienced in representing noncitizens with a criminal record.
It is not clear that you are eligible for adjustment of status, so you need to have an immigration law attorney review your situation before you do anything. Also, you may be eligible for other relief that would allow you to live and work in the U.S., at least temporarily, until you are eligible for apply for a green card or other permanent status.
You already have an attorney and should direct your questions to him or her. After all, that is what the attorney is being paid for. If you do not have confidence in this attorney, you should hire your own independent counsel or perhaps you and your company should find a new attorney.
An L2 is for a dependent of an L1. If the L1 no longer holds that status, your L2 status is no longer valid, so you would either need to obtain a new nonimmigrant status (perhaps an H4) or leave the U.S. L2's can get EADs but H4's cannot. If you want to continue to work, you need to find a status that would allow you to do so. You and your husband should speak with his employer and attorney to see if it is really necessary for him to change to H-1B status.
An immigration attorney can help you find out why he cannot enter and what steps he needs to take to get permission to enter. He may need a waiver of inadmissibility for some past immigration or criminal violation.
Telling you what forms to complete or how to complete them is legal advice that should only be provided by an attorney with whom you have an attorney-client relationship. Advice given without a full understanding of the facts can have adverse consequences for you and your family.
Under the Adam Walsh Act, certain convictions can bar U.S. citizens from petitioning for their family members. If your income is insufficient for the Affidavit of Support, and if your wife will need an Affidavit of Support, you can use a qualified Joint Sponsor. The petitioning process starts with the I-130 petition but that is only the first step in the process. As your questions show, this is not an easy process and it is important to have competent representation.
There are several different visa options. Some are for temporary stays and some are for permanent residency. Which option or options work best for you depends on a number of factors, including your short and long term goals, the type of business you are to open in the U.S., and your current business and employment situation in Brazil.
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Generally speaking, because of the 1 year roll back provision for asylee adjustments of status, the real time wait for naturalization eligibility is one year less. However, if you are married, it may affect your eligibility for permanent resident status if you received asylum as a derivative beneficiary of your mother's application. You should speak with an attorney because there is a solution to this issue if it applies to you. Also, there are other requirements specific to the expedited...