Check on it with USCIS by calling them. If USCIS mailed the card to the wrong address and it was their fault (meaning that you did not move or otherwise change your mailing address), you should not have to pay for a new card. If USCIS says that the card was delivered to your address, the address that you filed with, then you will have to pay for a new card unless you are one of the people who can qualify for a fee waiver.
I have helped clients file for naturalization successfully before their DUI convictions were five years old. It's possible for some people. But, if your application is denied, you don't get your money back. You are pretty close to the five year mark, so you could wait to feel a little more at ease about it and have less risk.
There isn't a special template that will convince immigration that your marriage is bona fide. The person you rent the room from can write a simple letter explaining the situation. You don't want to be caught up in a marriage fraud case, I recommend consulting an experienced immigration attorney.
Your basic question is whether it is possible to complete the U Visa process from within the United States. Yes, it Is possible to complete the U Visa process from within the United States. Some people complete the process in the US, and some people complete it abroad. However, at this point in your personal case, you have gotten into a complicated area and it is time to consult an attorney.
As others have stated, you need a lawyer to assist you with your personal case as you move forward...
I take it you have a tourist visa that was already issued and you want to keep using it? Carry evidence with you to show that you're going to return to your home country. Proof of business ownership and property ownership, basically a condensed form of what you probably showed to obtain your tourist visa in the first place. If you were applying for a brand new tourist visa, the I-130 is more of a problem (not insurmountable, but really a lot tougher).
You would benefit from a thorough consultation with an experienced immigration attorney. You need to be sure you can meet the requirements to adjust your status. You also need to be sure you can show that you have a bona fide marriage. Plus, to be able to file that form to financially sponsor you, your husband has to be able to show that he is domiciled in the US. This type of case, where you are filing based on marriage but you are not living together, is not simple. I really recommend an attorney.
After a tourist visa is refused, she may be able to apply for a grant of humanitarian parole. I would think she would need a family law attorney and an immigration attorney both to accomplish something like this. I have gotten humanitarian parole pushed through before for people who were denied tourist visas because of issues like the 10 year bar.
Until final regulations are passed, it's just too soon to say. Alien smuggling is viewed as a serious crime, so when the regulations come out I recommending consulting an experienced immigration attorney and proceeding with caution.
Your immigration options, including removal defense, are generally better when you have certain relatives who are US Citizens. Your bona fide relationship with the relatives is important. You may have other options if you have been a victim of certain kinds of crimes.
Immigration consequences of criminal convictions is a complicated practice area. You should consult a local attorney who understands this area to help you with your removal defense.
I'm a bit confused by your exact question, but generally:
An affirmative asylum filing that is not approved will be sent to immigration court only if the applicant is out of status. When you pick up notice that the asylum was not approved, you would also get a Notice to Appear in Immigration Court.
If an applicant is still in status when the asylum application is not approved at the asylum office, and the applicant would like to have the case sent to the Immigration Court anyway, it is...