A background check will usually catch a misdemeanor. An expungement would be beneficial. Contact a local criminal defense attorney for an initial consultation. Only some records are eligible foe sealing and/or expungement.
If this is your first court date since being arrested you will probably get a continuance if you ask. You should schedule a consultation with a local attorney as soon as possible. It's always better to go into court with an attorney.
The child support may be modified even if the judge does not grant the modification of time sharing. If your income went up $25K, it sounds like you have a substantial change in circumstances which may result in your child support being raised. I must respectfully disagree with my colleague regarding the standard for child support being need and ability to pay. That is the standard for spousal support. Child support is based on statutory guidelines that takes into account both of your incomes.
In order for the other party to get an injunction, she would have to show more than one act of violence or stalking. If this is all you did, you probably have nothing to worry about. If she does file and a hearing is granted, you should schedule a consultation with an experienced attorney.
I would need more information on the details of this "survivor's benefit" before I can give a full answer. It may be non marital if this was a benefit that accrued before the marriage. Consult with a local family law attorney.