No, you have no legal obligation to record a mediation settlement agreement in public records, such a mediation report/agreement is filed with the court in the foreclosure case. However, you (or your attorney) should diligently monitor the court docket/file to ensure the mediation settlement is filed and bank dismisses the case.
Fl law specifically voids any provisions in the lease that bars the tenant from suing a LL. So you can sue your LL for breach of lease and/or for damage to your property. Futhermore, FL law requires LL to provide pest control services for an apt complex. However, you must provide a 7-day notice, and follow the procedural requirements of delivering the notice. You should consult with a knowledgeable LL-tenant atty in your area.
I think additional practical advice (other than moving out at the end of the lease), would be to contact the employer to let them know abotu this situation. Your mother also has the right to "quiet enjoyment" of the property. You can let the LL know they are in breach of their lease by allowing this situation with a proper 7-day notice. You should consult an atty to prepare a proper notice in order to lay the groundwork for a solid case.
I agree you would not normally be held responsible for this debt and the bank is simply seeking to extinguish any other interest in the property, unless you agreed to be financially responsible for the debt (such as by signing the promissory note). If you are concerned about being joined inteh final judgment, I agree you should consult an attorney who can help you get out of the lawsuit.
I think many Americans agree with your logic (and frustration). It's an unfortunate mix of archaic law and strong creditor lobby. To answer your question, for now, "it just is." Nevertheless, you should not give up on reviewing other legal options that may be available to you by consulting an attorney in your area who can fully evaluate your entire financial situation.
It's difficult to answer your question due to its complexity and without reviewing the note and probate case. I suggest you consult with a knowledgeable attorney who can review this paperwork and provide you with options.
This is one of the most unfortunate risks of improving a property that you've rented. If the owner doesn't reach any settlement with the lender, you risk losing the home in foreclosure (along with your improvements). One idea would be to see if you can buy the property from the landlord, which may give you the chance to find a silver lining in this dark cloud. Good luck!
A number of factors should be considered in your case, such as the balance owed on the mortgage versus the current fair market value. Right now, you're not responsible for the loan and maybe you would not want to be. However, if you decide to retain the home, it is possible to assume the mortgage by contacting the bank directly, although some banks will require you to file a "probate case" in court and be appointed as a personal representative. You should consult an attorney as soon as possible...