The conviction alone is not, per se, reason to be denied status or citizenship. However, depending on the individual facts of your situation it could be cause for just such a denial. Consult an immigration attorney in conjunction with a criminal defense attorney.
Discovery is time limited, but that rule is hardly ever enforced because nearly any reason for delay would be considered by the court to be valid. As for other deadlines that would dismiss a case, there are some, but typically they contain exceptions to allow for extensions for cause. The description you give is a little puzzling, more details may help to get some better answers to your specific situation.
Generally for administrative purposes the language of the statute at the time of the infraction controls. Having said that if DHSMV is not being helpful, even folloing a hardship hearing, your only recourse maybe be attempting to withdraw your plea. Consider though if you are succesful the ramifications of that could worse than the lifetime suspension.
The suspension you suffered will follow you from state to state. There is a slim possibility you could challenge the suspension in California if the DUI law there is significantly different from the law in Nebraska. For instance, if Nebraska has a lower BAL level statute that makes it a lower degree misdemeanor. Most likely though you should just wait out the suspension.
That level of bond is unusual for a racing charge, with no prior criminal history. There may be more to the charge than you have been told. An attorney would be helpful to not only getting the bond lowered to a point where your son could bond out, but also to fight the charge. Rememmber any plea to a racing charge could result in loss of driving privileges. With some more information about your son, and his name it would be possible to find out more information prior to the 24th. If you...
Call them for a settlement amount. If they have reported you delinquent then they really have very little leverage. Make sure any agreement you make you get in writing first, before making any payments. They will pressure you, but make sure that letter is in your hand before dealing with the company.
In general, five years would be beyond the statute of limitations in every state. However, it does depend on how the crime is charged. Also, there are instances that toll the statute of limitations for a crime. If the person is out of the state or country the clock will typically stop for statute of limitation purposes.
Unless you have suffered some sort of financial loss filing suit is probably not the best course of action. If someone is stealing your mail, first contact the post office in your area and ask to speak with regional director, or branch director. This ultimately would be a federal criminal matter.
You should let your son go to trial with an attorney he is comfortable with. There are many good and bad public defenders, just like private attorneys. The best course of action is talk with some attorneys, have your son talk to them as well, and then reach a decision on who he feels most comfortable with to defend his interests in front of a jury.
If adjudication was withheld then for practical purposes it means the charge can be sealed or expunged depending on some other factors. As for the nursing board, typically each offense is looked at individually for licensing and a violent charge is a huge hurdle. Consult an attorney about a possible sealing.