Ultimately, the decision is completely yours whether or not you want to settle. You have not provided sufficient information/facts to know whether $8k - $10k is on par for cases like yours. That being said, your attorney's role is to advise you on what he or she thinks are your best options. Often, your attorney is better suited to see the big picture without emotional attachment. You should be discussing these concerns with your attorney and perhaps he or she can give you more guidance on why...
Whether you have a claim depends on the basis of the discrimination. Was it simply a personality issues? If so, you don't have grounds for a claim. If, however, it was related to an injury or disability you have, then it is possible that you may have a claim. If the harassment has caused you to need the anxiety medication, you could possibly have a claim for damages, but again, it depends on whether the harassment was based on your membership in a protected class (race, gender, disability,...
While discrimination based on an individual's status as a parent (prohibited under Executive Order 13152) is not a covered basis under the laws enforced by the EEOC, there are circumstances where discrimination against caregivers may give rise to sex discrimination under Title VII or disability discrimination under the ADA. See Enforcement Guidance: Unlawful Disparate Treatment of Workers with Caregiving Responsibilities.
I would suggest that you speak with a lawyer in your jurisdiction...
There are certainly worrying facts in what you have stated above. Your employer could be violating the Americans With Disabilities Act, in addition to other laws such as HIPAA.
I would suggest you contact an attorney in your area as soon as possible to discuss this issue.
From what you wrote, there doesn't appear to be any indication that this employer would try to make you adhere to their religious beliefs. It seems that they simply wanted to notify you that you may see them praying in their private time, which is acceptable. This scenario would me more problematic if, for example, they had told you that you would be expected to pray with them at company activities etc.
Unless there is documentation stating that you only have to achieve 3 of the 5 components, I would assume that you would have to achieve 5 of the 5 components to be entitled to the bonus. That being said, it does not appear that you "earned" this bonus.
Employers often use more technical language such as "regularly scheduled to work 40 Hours per week" to define eligibility. For example, if you are not "scheduled" to work 40 hours then you are not eligible for the benefits. The employer has discretion to determine who is eligible.
You would need to provide more information for anyone to give you any short of valuable opinion. However, generally, employment is "at-will" unless you have an employment contract or are subject to a union agreement. This means that the employer can terminate you at any time, for any reason, so long as it is not discriminatory in nature.