I'm sorry to hear you're having troubles with your attorney. Make sure you disengage the attorney as politely as possible - but let her know your concerns. You'll need to request a copy of your entire file so a new attorney can see what all has been done in the past. Good luck!
If you didn't take your current husband's name when you married, your current legal name is likely the one on on your Florida driver's license. Generally when you get a marriage license, it asks you what name you would like to have. Do you remember putting down that you wanted to change your name with your most recent marriage?
A fiance visa is one of the most restrictive visas out there. If you decide to not get married within 90 days, your immigration path will be unnecessarily complicated. However, if you are truly scared to return to Syria then you do have a claim for asylum. Speak with an immigration attorney who is experienced in asylum matters as soon as possible to ensure your case goes as well as it can.
Initial Disclaimer: This could all change a lot between now and any potential bill passage. So, with that grain of salt, here's what is known. The F4 category would be phased out within 18 months of the law's enactment. However, those who are currently waiting to process will be allowed to move forward, regardless of when the visa number becomes available. There is nothing certain proposed on backlogs, as far as I know, but they want to clear those out quickly. USCIS won't begin to "legalize"...
I'm sorry to hear about the divorce. In short, yes, you can file to remove the conditions at any time after the divorce is final. You'll have to do more work to convince USCIS that your marriage was "real," and for that, you should strongly consider having an attorney help you out.
The spouse will not be able to gain U-2 status until the U-1 applicant starts the process of becoming a lawful permanent resident (three years from the time of U approval).. In order to derive U status, the couple needed to have been married at the time of the original filing.
Whatever you decide to do, you'll want to move quickly. Schedule an appointment with an attorney (and you and your parents all need to go) to talk about the situation and if asylum is appropriate or if there's some other way to stay in the United States.
I'm sorry to hear about the tough situation you are in. Since you are divorced, the I-130, even though approved, is no longer valid. You cannot use it as a basis to get a new work card. If you filed a new I-485 with the I-360, you will get a new work card through that application.
The EAD is actually based on your I-485 and not the VAWA I-360. As long as you have a pending I-485, you should be able to renew your work card. You may need to switch the code, so it wouldn't be a bad idea to have an attorney help you, since you're switching from a marriage-based adjustment to self-petitioning status.