It is a myth held by many that you have to stay married to obtain your permanent green card at the end of the two-year period. The law allows you to divorce your husband and apply for your permanent green card based on the plain fact that you divorced and/or that you were subject to emotional abuse. You of course will need to establish once again that the marriage was valid to begin with.
I highly recommend you contact an attorney to discuss how this is done. My office is located in...
In addition to the above, you might look into filing Form N-470, which, if you qualify, will help you maintain residency for purposes of accumulating the amount of time you need to reside in the United States before you qualify for US Citizenship (and if you become a citizen, you don't have to worry about these things anymore). To qualify, among other things, your employer must be an "American firm or corporation".
I would recommend you contact an immigration attorney before you leave for...
I agree with my colleagues above -- generally speaking should take 6-10 months based on current processing times. But each case is unique and lawyers cannot "guarantee" what they cannot control -- how the U.S. govt. chooses to operate, and how fast! Best option is to work with an attorney on something so important.
Generally speaking, you need to show proof that you have continued to be married to your spouse, OR, that you have divorced. You should speak with an attorney in your area to make sure that you do the filing properly.
You should not travel until you confer with an immigration attorney or you may find yourself unable to return to the United States. IT also sounds like you should speak with an attorney about your citizenship case.