Are you the petitioner or beneficiary? If the Immigration Service makes a determination that the foreign national spouse entered into a marriage purely for the purpose of procuring an immigration benefit, he/she will be permanently illegible for the issuance of any visa.
That being stated, it appears that you are a U.S. petitioner requesting that ICE arrest and deport your spouse from the United States. If you made these statement at your interview only to spite your spouse and...
If your mother doesn't live in the US, her affidavit will not hold too much weight. She's also related to you -- it's self serving. You will likely receiver a request for evidence (RFE). It can delay the removal of your conditions. You should consider consulting with an attorney.
You can bring him here by filing either a fiancé visa or by marrying him and filing an alien relative petition. You should consult with an attorney to review all the facts. Everything is filed here and transferred to the National Visa Center. Once mistake could delay everything. Get a lawyer.
Until a new law passes, it is pure speculation whether not your friend is a good candidate.
Immigration background check are extensive - everything will show up. For immigration purposes, the history you've outlined above is appears to be highly relevant and very significant.
The conviction needs to be reviewed thoroughly. Typically, the Petitioner's convictions are not an issue, except where there conviction is sexual in nature (Adam Walsh conviction). Everything must be reviewed. You need to consider retaining an attorney. Your conviction is another factor that will likely cause the Immigration Service to take a closer look at your case. You should consult with an immigration attorney.
You can. If you entered by crossing the border, you would have to file a I-601A waiver (and prove extreme hardship). If you entered legally, you could adjust status and stay in the US. More facts are needed. You should call an attorney.
She can apply for citizenship, sure - will she be granted citizenship is the issue.
Her five (5) month absence will not be a problem, however, her 11 month absence may be an issue. It is at the discretion of the Service whether your mother should be naturalized.
You should stop guessing and speak with an attorney. You would be foolish to apply on your own. There are many qualified and experienced immigration attorneys in your area.