Some for example if I was hired on to a very small company (basically just the owner himself) and told that I'm hired on as a "contractor" and not an "employee"... does that automatically make me an independent contractor if I am NOT going through any sort of staffing agency?
Are there TWO type of contractors? Regular and Independent?
Yes, if you are not being hired as an employee you are an independent contractor, which means that you are responsible for paying all of your own taxes. When you are told that you are being hired as a contractor and not as an employee it means that you are hired as an independent contractor.
I should note that you may want to speak to a labor and employment attorney if you think you are being managed like an employee. It is improper for an employer to classify you as a non employee if that is the situation, but you would want to speak to an attorney for more information.